Every Feel Dizzy for No Reason?
MAST CELL Rogues Gallery. Be on the Lookout!
Arteries are Red
Vein blood is Blue
It’s in my DNA.
To wish a Happy Valentine’s Day to You!!!
From all us Masterminds to you! Happy Valentines Day!!
For the ladies, about mid-November, between Veteran’s Day and Thanksgiving.
My minions said to be nice to everyone since it’s Valentines Day! Muhwahahahhaha!!
Roses are Red, Violets are Blue,
My wife and I both,
Tested positive for the Fly
Commonly prescribed drugs associate with cognitive function: a cross-sectional study in UK Biobank
"In summary, in a large and diverse population cohort, associations between medication and cognitive performance have been found.
Causal inferences cannot be drawn from these data, but the findings illustrate the opportunities and challenges of real-world data.
This research has been conducted using the UK Biobank resource."
Mast Cell Responses to Viruses and Pathogen Products
Jean S. Marshall, Liliana Portales-Cervantes, and Edwin Leong
"Mast cells are well accepted as important sentinel cells for host defence against selected pathogens. Their location at mucosal surfaces and ability to mobilize multiple aspects of early immune responses makes them critical contributors to effective immunity in several experimental settings.
However, the interactions of mast cells with viruses and pathogen products are complex and can have both detrimental and positive impacts.
There is substantial evidence for mast cell mobilization and activation of effector cells and mobilization of dendritic cells following viral challenge. These cells are a major and under-appreciated local source of type I and III interferons following viral challenge.
However, mast cells have also been implicated in inappropriate inflammatory responses, long term fibrosis, and vascular leakage associated with viral infections.
Progress in combating infection and boosting effective immunity requires a better understanding of mast cell responses to viral infection and the pathogen products and receptors we can employ to modify such responses."
I can can confirm…ugh
Front. Immunol., 18 May 2015 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2015.00238
Mast cells and influenza A virus: association with allergic responses and beyond
￼Amy C. Graham
"Influenza A virus (IAV) is a widespread infectious agent commonly found in mammalian and avian species. In humans, IAV is a respiratory pathogen that causes seasonal infections associated with significant morbidity in young and elderly populations, and has a large economic impact.
Moreover, IAV has the potential to cause both zoonotic spillover infection and global pandemics, which have significantly greater morbidity and mortality across all ages.
The pathology associated with these pandemic and spillover infections appear to be the result of an excessive inflammatory response leading to severe lung damage, which likely predisposes the lungs for secondary bacterial infections.
The lung is protected from pathogens by alveolar epithelial cells, endothelial cells, tissue resident alveolar macrophages, dendritic cells, and mast cells. The importance of mast cells during bacterial and parasitic infections has been extensively studied; yet, the role of these hematopoietic cells during viral infections is only beginning to emerge.
Recently, it has been shown that mast cells can be directly activated in response to IAV, releasing mediators such histamine, proteases, leukotrienes, inflammatory cytokines, and antiviral chemokines, which participate in the excessive inflammatory and pathological response observed during IAV infections.
In this review, we will examine the relationship between mast cells and IAV, and discuss the role of mast cells as a potential drug target during highly pathological IAV infections.
Finally, we proposed an emerging role for mast cells in other viral infections associated with significant host pathology."
Apoptosis and Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Response of Mast Cells Induced by Influenza A Viruses
Bo Liu, Di Meng, […], and Ming Wang
"Influenza A virus (IAV) is one of the most common respiratory pathogens. It is notorious for its unique potential to cause global pandemics and epidemics in animals and humans of all age groups.
It has considerable morbidity and high fatality rates. Several studies suggest that fatal lung tissue injury triggered by the cytokines dysregulation (called “cytokine storm”), which is produced by excessive immune inflammation response, makes a critical contribution to the mortality of influenza –.
Mast cells are enriched at tissue sites that interface closely with the external environment and so a crucial sentinel role in host defense against pathogens, such as bacteria, parasites, and viruses –. The role of mast cells during influenza virus infection has been ignored until recently. Data from this and other research groups have demonstrated the involvement of mast cells in IAV infection –.
One recent study by the present team has shown that very large numbers and very high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are produced and secreted in P815 mast cells during IAV infection (unpublished data). This indicates that mast cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of IAV infection."
Cool, but scary implications on security.